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Saturday, September 27, 2008

QTP - Interview Question Bank : Part 5

Q. 41: What are the various utilities and tools available in QTP?
Tools Menu contains the following utilities and tools which are helpful in the testing process:

# Action Conversion Tool: Enables you to convert test actions that were created using QTP to scripted components for use in business process testing.

# Additional Installation Requirements: Opens the Additional Installation Requirements dialog box, which displays any prerequisite software that you must install or configure to work with QTP.

# Business Component Upgrade Tool: Opens the Business Component Upgrade Tool. If you are connected to a Quality Center project, this tool enables you to upgrade all of the business components in a Quality Center project, from an earlier component version to the format required by the current version.

# HP Micro Player: Opens the HP Micro Player, which enables you to view captured movies of a run session without opening QuickTest.

# License Validation Utility: Opens the License Validation utility, which enables you to retrieve and validate license information.

# Password Encoder: Opens the Password Encoder dialog box, which enables you to encode passwords. You can use the resulting strings as method arguments or Data Table parameter values (tests only).

# QTP Script Editor: Opens the QTP Script Editor, which enables you to open and modify the scripts of multiple tests and function libraries, simultaneously.

# Register New Browser Control: Opens the Register Browser Control Utility, which enables you to register your browser control application so that QTP recognizes your Web object when recording or running tests.

# Remote Agent: Activates the QuickTest Remote Agent, which enables you to configure how QuickTest behaves when a test is run by a remote application such as Quality Center.

# Save and Restore Settings: Opens the Save and Restore Settings dialog box, which enables you to save your existing configurations before uninstalling an old version, and then restore them after installing a new version.

# Silent Test Runner: Opens the Silent Test Runner dialog box, which enables you to run a QTP test the way it is run from LoadRunner and Business Availability Center.

# Test Batch Runner: Opens the Test Batch Runner dialog box, which enables you to set up QTP to run several tests in succession.

# Test Results Deletion Tool. Opens the Test Results Deletion Tool dialog box, which enables you to delete unwanted or obsolete results from your system according to specific criteria that you define.

Q. 42: What is the concept of Test Object Model in QTP?============================================
QTP tests your dynamically changing application by learning and identifying test objects and their expected properties and values. To do this, QTP analyzes each object in your application in much the same way that a person would look at a photograph and remember its details.

The test object model is a large set of object types or classes that QTP uses to represent the objects in your application. Each test object class has a list of properties that can uniquely identify objects of that class and a set of relevant methods that QuickTest can learn about it.
A test object is an object that QTP creates in the test to represent the actual object in your application. QTP stores information on the object that will help it identify and check the object during the run session.

A run-time object is the actual object in your application on which methods are performed during the run session.

Q.43: Please explain some real world scenario explaining Object Learning process of QTP?
QTP learns objects just as you would. For example, suppose as part of an experiment, Alex is told that he will be shown a photograph of a picnic scene for a few seconds during which someone will point out one item in the picture. Alex is told that he will be expected to identify that item again in identical or similar pictures one week from today.

Before he is shown the photograph, Alex begins preparing himself for the test by thinking about which characteristics he wants to learn about the item that the tester indicates. Obviously, he will automatically note whether it is a person, inanimate object, animal, or plant. Then, if it is a person, he will try to commit to memory the gender, skin color, and age. If it is an animal, he will try to remember the type of animal, its color, and so forth.

The tester shows the scene to Alex and points out one of three children sitting on a picnic blanket. Alex notes that it is a Caucasian girl about 8 years old. In looking at the rest of the picture, however, he realizes that one of the other children in the picture could also fit that description. In addition to learning his planned list of characteristics, he also notes that the girl he is supposed to identify has long, brown hair.

Now that only one person in the picture fits the characteristics he learned, he is fairly sure that he will be able to identify the girl again, even if the scene the tester shows him next week is slightly different.

Since he still has a few moments left to look at the picture, he attempts to notice other, more subtle differences between the child he is supposed to remember and the others in the picture—just in case.

If the two similar children in the picture appeared to be identical twins, Alex might also take note of some less permanent feature of the child, such as the child’s position on the picnic blanket. That would enable him to identify the child if he were shown another picture in which the children were sitting on the blanket in the same order.

Q. 44: What is the method used by QTP to learn objects?=============================================

QTP “looks” at the object being learned and stores it as a test object, determining in which test object class it fits. In the same way, Alex immediately checked whether the item was a person, animal, plant, or inanimate object. QTP might classify the test object as a standard Windows dialog box (Dialog), a Web button (WebButton), or a Visual Basic scroll bar object (VbScrollBar), for example.

Then, for each test object class, QTP has a list of mandatory properties that it always learns; similar to the list of characteristics that Alex planned to learn before seeing the picture. When QTP learns an object, it always learns these default property values, and then “looks” at the rest of the objects on the page, dialog box, or other parent object to check whether this description is enough to uniquely identify the object. If it is not, QTP adds assistive properties, one by one, to the description, until it has compiled a unique description; similar to when Alex added the hair length and color characteristics to his list. If no assistive properties are available, or if those available are not sufficient to create a unique description, QTP adds a special ordinal identifier, such as the object’s location on the page or in the source code, to create a unique description.

Q. 45: What is Test Object Methodin QTP?
It is a method that QTP recognizes as applicable to a particular test object. For example, the Click method is applicable to a WebButton test object. As you add steps to your test, you specify which method to perform on each test object. If you record steps, QTP records the relevant method as it is performed on an object.

During a run session, QTP performs the specified test object method on the run-time object. Run-time object methods are the methods of the object in your application as defined by the object creator. You can access and perform run-time object methods using the Object property.

Q. 46: What are the Test object propertiesin QTP?=======================================
Test object properties are the properties whose values are captured from the objects in your application when QTP learns the object. QTP uses the values of these properties to identify run-time objects in your application during a run session.

Property values of objects in your application may change dynamically each time your application opens, or based on certain conditions. You may need to modify the test object property values to match the run-time object property values. You can modify test object properties manually while designing your test, or use SetTOProperty statements during a run session.

Q. 47: How to decide on whether to save the objects in Local or Shared Object Repositories?
Local object repository is easiest to use when you are creating simple tests, especially under the following conditions:
# You have only one, or very few, tests that correspond to a given application, interface, or set of objects.
# You do not expect to frequently modify object properties.
# You generally create single-action tests.

Shared object repository is the preferred option when:
# You are creating tests using keyword-driven methodologies (not by recording).
# You have several tests that test elements of the same application, interface, or set of objects.
# You expect the object properties in your application to change from time to time and/or you regularly need to update or modify object properties.
# You often work with multi-action tests and regularly use the Insert Copy of Action and Insert Call to Action options.

Q. 48: What are the possibilities of Exporting the data among various Object Repositories?
When QTP learns a test object, it adds it to the local object repository & not to the shared object repository — unless the same test object already exists in an associated shared object repository. (In this case, QTP uses the existing information in the shared object repository.)

You can export objects from the local object repository to a shared object repository. You can also export the local object repository and replace it with a shared object repository. This enables you to make the local objects accessible to other actions.

You can also merge objects from the local object repository directly to a shared object repository that is associated with the same action. This can help reduce maintenance since you can maintain the objects in a single shared location, instead of multiple locations.

Q. 49: What is the effect of restoring Default Properties for a Test Object in QTP?===================================================
When you restore the default properties, it restores the mandatory property set defined for the selected object class in the Object Identification dialog box.

Any changes that you have made to the description property set for the test object will be overwritten. However, if property values were defined for any of the mandatory properties they are not modified.

Q. 50: What is the use of Ordinal Identifiers in QTP
An ordinal identifier assigns a numerical value to a test object that indicates its order or location relative to other objects with an otherwise identical description (objects that have the same values for all properties).

This ordered value provides a backup mechanism that enables QTP to create a unique description to recognize an object when the defined properties are not sufficient to do so. You can specify the ordinal identifier for test objects in the local object repository using the Object Repository window or Object Properties dialog box, and for test objects in the shared object repository using the Object Repository Manager.

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